2. Which of the following is considered to be closest to the common animal ancestor? Describe the information needed to build a phylogenetic animal tree Biologists strive to understand the history of evolution and the relationships of members of the animal kingdom and throughout life. The study of phyology aims to determine the evolutionary relationships between Phyla. Currently, most biologists share the animal kingdom in 35 to 40 Phyla. Scientists develop phylogenetic trees that serve as hypotheses on the species from which Eumetazoa ancestors evolved: group of animals with truly differentiated tissues Scientists are interested in the evolution of animals and the evolutionary relationships between them. There are three main sources of data that scientists use to create phylogenetic evolutionary tree diagrams that illustrate these links: morphological information (including developmental morphologies), fossil data recording data and, more recently, molecular data. The details of the modern phylogenetic tree often change when new data are collected, and molecular data have recently contributed to many important changes in the understanding of the relationship between phyla. Evolutionary trees, or phylogeny, is the formal study of organisms and their evolutionary history in relation to each other. Phylogenetic trees are the most used to represent the relationships between species. In particular, they specify whether certain characteristics are homologous (found in the common ancestor as a consequence of divergent evolution) or homoplasy (sometimes called analog: a character that is not found in a common ancestor, but whose function is developed independently in two or more organisms by a convergent evolution). Evolutionary trees are diagrams that show different biological species and their evolutionary relationships.

They are made up of branches that range from lower life forms to higher forms of life. 1. Advise the modern phylogenetic tree of animals, which of the following animals would not be a klade? Many evolutionary relationships in the modern tree have been determined recently on the basis of molecular evidence. Nucleic acid and protein analyses marked the construction of the modern phylogenetic animal tree. These data come from a wide variety of molecular sources, such as mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, ribosomal RNA (RNA) and certain cellular proteins. Evolutionary trees can be made by determining sequentical information of similar genes in different organisms. Similar sequences are often considered less time for discrepancies, while fewer similar sequences have more evolutionary time to deviate from each other. The tree of evolution is created by aligning sequences and each branch length in proportion to the amino acid differences of the sequences. In addition, it is possible to calculate, by assuming a constant rate of mutation at a sequence and by performing a sequence alignment, the approximate time at which the interest rate sequence diverged into monophyletic groups. 5. In many cases, morphological similarities between animals can only be superficial and may not indicate a true evolutionary relationship.

One reason is that certain morphological characteristics can develop along very different evolutionary branches of animals for similar ecological reasons. Phylogenetic Tree of Life: a phylogenetic tree of life that shows the relationship between species whose genomes have been sequenced since 2006. The centre represents the last universal ancestor of all life on earth. The different colors represent the three areas of life: pink represents Eukaryota (animals, plants and fungi); Blue is a bacterium. and green represents Archaeen. Remember that, until recently, only morphological characteristics and fossil data were used to determine phylogenetic relationships between animals.